When considering upper body striking, martial artists tend to focus on the pectoral, triceps and deltoid muscle groups, and the glenohumeral (GH) joint, which is the most obvious shoulder joint. The GH joint consists of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula (the “socket” of the shoulder blade). Since this joint is essentially like a ball resting on a shallow dish, and not a deep socket like the hip joint, ligaments and the attached muscles provide most of the stability. There are also three other joints in the shoulder complex that play important roles in maintaining stability for the GH joint, with the scapulothoracic being most prone to abuse in combative training. This joint is formed by the fibrous connection of the scapula to the posterior torso wall, which allows the scapula to glide and rotate as the GH joint requires.
The serratus anterior and the trapezius provide the ability to adduct (pull close to the ribcage), retract, depress, and upwardly or downwardly rotate the scapulae. They maintain alignment of the glenoid fossa with the head of the humerus. A strong, reasonably flexible rotator cuff group is important, but the trapezius needs to be able to provide rotation and stabilization so that the GH joint stays centered and the rotator cuff isn’t impinged. The trapezius and serratus need to work synergistically with the GH joint movers. Striking in general requires the same coupling of scapular and humeral actions that has been reported for other overhand actions (Kibler, et. al., 2007) such as the tennis serve.
Posted in Anatomy, Boxing, Combat Sports, Conditioning, Fight Sciences Research Institute, Fighting Arts, Health, karate, MMA, Muay Thai, Resources, Sports Science, strength training
Tagged boxing, combat sports, fighting arts, karate, martial arts, MMA, movement impairment, Muay Thai, punching, scapula, scapulohumeral, serratus, striking, trapezius
Specificity of training is the basis on which all modern physical training rests. Briefly, to produce a desired physiological adaptation, a training program must place sufficient stress on the physiological systems in question (Willmore & Costill, 2004). In training environments this is commonly referred to as Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands (SAID). Adaptations to training are limited to the physiological system overloaded by the program. This includes neuromotor, morphological, hormonal and metabolic elements. Fighting activities (encompassing both combat sports and fighting/self protection scenarios) present a unique programming challenge, requiring a range of adaptations to all systems.
Posted in Anatomy, Boxing, Combat Sports, Conditioning, Fight Sciences Research Institute, Fighting, Judo, karate, MMA, Muay Thai, Resources, Self Protection, Sports Science, strength training, Wrestling
Tagged boxing, combat sports, conditioning, fighting arts, karate, martial arts, MMA, Muay Thai, SAID, specificity, wrestling
The Virginia FSRI group has been learning this throw (basic hip spiral/o-goshi) and reviewing falling skills for the last few weeks. The clip shows some different semi-open randori exchanges designed to integrate it with related pin/escape skills. Continual role switching makes it a bit more challenging and dynamic, but within an environment that’s still conducive to some experimentation (from the 4/7 VA class).
Posted in Fight Sciences Research Institute, Fighting Arts, Judo, karate, MMA, Photos and Images, Self Protection, training, Video Link, Wrestling
Tagged escapes, FSRI, grappling, ground fighting, guard, karate, kesa gatame, mount, o goshi, pins, pugnosis, randori, self defense, self protection, standing grappling, tactical grappling, throws
The actions of fighting arts (including combatives and self-defense systems) and combat sports place regular high stresses on the spinal column. I’ve previously mentioned the anterior-posterior compressive and shear forces that affect the lumbar spine, but not the transverse rotational (torsional) and lateral compressive forces that actions like punching, kicking, throwing and falling places on the thoracic spine. Basic fighting postures, such as a standing guard or striking can encourage thoracic kyphosis and lateral asymmetry. Left unchecked, torso actions can become plagued by dominant muscular patterns of imbalance to one side or the other, as a result of a favored limb or ingrained movement compensations due to faulty stabilization or movement system activity. Over time these muscular imbalances can lead to vertebral facet degradation and arthritis, disk herniations and ruptures, nerve entrapment and bone spurs (typically in the direction of excessive muscular tension), all of which translate to reduced performance.
Curvature of a healthy spinal column. Note the lateral symmetry.
Posted in Anatomy, Boxing, Combat Sports, Conditioning, conditioning, Fight Sciences Research Institute, Health, Judo, MMA, Muay Thai, Resources, Safety, self defense, Self Protection, Sports Science, training
Tagged boxing, combat sports, Corrective exercise, fighting arts, judo, karate, kyphosis, MMA, Muay Thai, thoracic spine
Ed. Note: while the examples used in the piece below relate to punching and recreational/athletic MA training, the concepts can easily be applied to all other fighting skills and situations in which they might be used.
How many ways are there to skin a cat? Or in this case, throw a punch? Among both novice and experts (and “experts”), it can seem as if there is a “right” way to perform a fighting skill, yet variations are to be found from style to style, from individual to individual, and even from moment to moment within the same encounter. The Q & A below came out of a discussion with martial artist and CSCS Daniel Ramos (fellow ATSU Human Movement Science alum).
Posted in Anatomy, Boxing, Combat Sports, Conditioning, Fight Sciences Research Institute, General Musings, Health, karate, MMA, Muay Thai, Pedagogy, Resources, Self Protection, training
Tagged boxing, combat sports, cross, hitting, karate, kinematics, martial arts, MMA, Muay Thai, punching, striking
This simply has to be shared (hat tip to Brett over at the kyokushinblog):
- What constitutes an “expert” in a fighting art or practice? Approaching the question from a motor learning perspective is highly useful, and has many obvious inroads into discussing pedagogy, practicality and transferability of a training method to a performance setting.Experts in any physical activity exhibit several common characteristics, regardless of the nature of the activity:
- 1. Superior ability to anticipate the likely outcome of a situation as it emerges. This is distinct from a conscious effort to guess what will happen, which we see in relative novices. Instead, this is more efficient perception-action linking. It manifests as shorter reaction time, with reaction time being the interval between stimulus and initiation of movement. RT is a reflection of the cognitive processing going on between perceptual and motor regions before a physical response is initiated. Combined with more efficient motor programs for the movement time, the result is a faster overall response time (RT and MT combined).
- 2. Less visual search for the important aspects of a developing situation. A relative novice looks everywhere, whereas the expert looks immediately at the salient areas (a shoulder movement before a punch, a slight drop of the forearm towards the belt line, etc.)
- Continue reading
Posted in Boxing, Combat Psychology, Combat Sports, Fight Sciences Research Institute, Fighting Arts, General Musings, Judo, MMA, Muay Thai, Pedagogy, Resources, Self Protection, training
Tagged boxing, coaching, expertise, fighting arts, futbol de salao, game intelligence skills, judo, karate, martial arts, MMA, motor learning, small-sided sparring